Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Petar Sabev Varbanov, Yee Van Fan
Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology - VUT BRNO, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno, Czech Republic, firstname.lastname@example.org
Qiu-Wang Wang, Min Zeng
Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710049, China
Energy is a vital line for the overall development of smart industry, cities and agriculture.
However, analysing Energy footprints, an obvious observation emerges, showing that a considerable proportion of energy is wasted during transmission, transformation, storage and use. The share of losses dominates the structure of the overall economy energy flows.
One of the critical problems is the exploitation of low potential heat. The emissions released are proportional to the energy society needs to generate. This makes the GHG (Greenhouse Gas) footprint a crucial environmental accounting tool for business managers, policymakers and non-governmental organisations attempting to identify mitigation measures that reduce the threat of climate change. GHG footprint is increasingly used in policy development and product design. Footprints have reached worldwide popularity, and the environmental issues they are addressing become increasingly diverse, such as climate change and smog/haze problems (Greenhouse gas including Carbon emissions footprint), freshwater use (water footprint), land use (land footprint), material use (material footprint).
A crucial part of societal activities plays the energy sourcing, conversion and use. Since all human activities need to be powered by energy, this becomes as a focal point of all resource intake and emission flows, This makes energy use and GHG footprint of fundamental importance, strongly correlating with all other footprints. Footprints are an essential tool for the development and assessment of the circular economy. Industry's contribution to the achievement of sustainable development, engage the challenge of providing competitive results and products in the short term while trying to protect and preserve natural and human resources in the long term. Sustainability requires human society to develop a strategy that accepts and understands its responsibility towards living conditions and environment both in regional and worldwide level. Crucial for research achievements is a broad international collaboration, cross-fertilisation and exchange of results.
Sustainability issues are global. Primarily dealing with greenhouse gases, the joint effort is evidently vital for addressing the issues. However, they are some legal aspects to be dealt with: patenting and copyright law, intellectual property rights, for example. Those issues are even more restricting when the research is proprietary and industrially funded. The legal, economically viable and mutually acceptable ways should be searched. One option is collaborative research and co-funding, which is the case of the European Community funded project. Another valuable tool is agreements as Memoranda of understanding and Contractual collaboration agreements facilitating networking.
This research has been supported by the EU project “Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL”, project No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000456 funded by EU “CZ Operational Programme Research, Development and Education”, Priority 1: Strengthening capacity for quality research in contractual collaboration with Jiaotong Xi’an University, China
and by the project LTACH19033 “Transmission Enhancement and Energy Optimised Integration of Heat Exchangers in Petrochemical Industry Waste Heat Utilisation”, under the bilateral collaboration of the Czech Republic and the People's Republic of China (partners Xi'an Jiaotong University and Sinopec Research Institute Shanghai; SPIL VUT, Brno University of Technology and EVECO sro, Brno), programme INTER-EXCELLENCE, INTER-ACTION of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports; and by National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFE0108900).
BIO OF THE SPEAKERProf Dr-Hab Jiří Jaromír KLEMEŠ, DSc, Dr h c (mult)
Head of a Centre of Excellence “Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL”, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology - VUT Brno, Czech Republic and Emeritus Professor at “Centre for Process Systems Engineering and Sustainability”, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest, Hungary. George Pólya Professor
Previously the Project Director, Senior Project Officer and Hon Reader at Department of Process Integration at UMIST, The University of Manchester and the University of Edinburgh, UK. Founder and a long-term Head of the Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary. Awarded by the EC with Marie Curie Chair of Excellence (EXC). Track record of managing and coordinating 94 major EC, NATO, bilateral and UK Know-How projects. Research funding attracted over 34 M€.
Co-Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Cleaner Production (IF 6.315) and Chemical Engineering Transactions, Subject Editor of Energy and Emeritus Executive Editor of Applied Thermal Engineering. The founder and President for 23 y of PRES (Process Integration for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction) conferences. Seven years Chairperson of CAPE Working Party of EFCE (European Federation of Chemical Engineering), a member of WP on Process Intensification and of the EFCE Sustainability platform. A Member of the IChemE Sargent Medal International Committee on CAPE.
He has been awarded by the Web of Science and Publons a Highly Cited Researcher, Top Peer Reviewer and Top Handling Editor. He authored and co-authored 551 papers, h-index in Google Scholar 59, in Scopus 51 His Publons profile (Web of Science) shows 1,623 reviews for 110 scientific journals and 6,542 Editors Merits for 21 Editorial boards. A number of books published by Elsevier, De Gruyter, Woodhead, McGraw-Hill; Ashgate Publishing Cambridge; Springer; WILEY-VCH; Taylor & Francis). Invited lecturer at 54 universities world-wide including Cornell, Ithaca, and North-West University Chicago, USA; Fudan University and SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Shanghai; Tsinghua and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China University of Petrochemistry Beijing, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China; Hong-Kong Polytechnic University; National Chengchi University and National University of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan; National University Singapore, Hanyang University, and Korea Universities, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, Imperial College, London, UK; Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; Tomsk Technological University, Tomsk, Russian Federation; S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan; University of Paderborn and Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Leverkusen and BASF Board of Directors Forum on Process Technology, Ludwigshafen, Germany; VTT Energy, Finland; VITO MOL, Belgium; MOL Hungarian Oil Company, DUSLO Šala, Slovakia, TNO Leiden, Groningen, Zeist and Eindhoven; Utrecht and Delft University, the Netherlands; University Politechnica Leonardo da Vinci, Milano, Università degli studi di Genova and Sapienza, Rome, Italy; Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia; King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Oporto, Portugal, CEA Grenoble, France; Charmers and Stockholm University, Sweden, Taiwan Association of Environmental and Resource Economics (TAERE), Taiwan Chemical Industry Forum, University of Tenessee, Knoxville, USA. Several times Distinguished Visiting Professor at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and University Technology Petronas, Malaysia; Xi’an Jiaotong University; the South China University of Technology, Guangzhou and Tianjin University in China; University of Maribor, Slovenia; the Brno University of Technology, the Russian Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow and Cracow University of Technology, Poland. Doctor Honoris Causa of Kharkiv National University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” in Ukraine, the University of Maribor in Slovenia, University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Romania “Honorary Doctor of Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia”. Awarded with “Honorary Membership of Czech Society of Chemical Engineering", "European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) Life-Time Achievements Award" and "Pro Universitaire Pannonica" Gold Medal. He has been a supervisor and co-supervisor of 24 PhD students at UMIST; The University of Manchester, UK; Prague University of Chemical Technology, Universiti Technologi Malaysia, Universiti Technologi Petronas, Malaysia, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China, University of Pannonia, Hungary, University of Maribor, Slovenia; D. Serikbayev East Kazakhstan State Technical University, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan, and Brno University of Technology, VUT Brno. Most PhD graduated as “Suma Cum laude” and “Cum laude”.
He has many years of research and industrial experience, including research in process integration, sustainable technologies and renewable energy, which has resulted in extensive successful industrial case studies and applications. He consulted on energy saving and pollution reduction 37 major clients. Research results have been applied by world-leading industrial companies and universities as ICI (Imperial Chemical Industries) Plc, Runcorn, UK; Dow Chemical Canada Inc, Sarnia, Ontario; BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Germany; COPENE – Petroquimica Do Nordeste S.A., Camacari/Bajia, Brazil, SLOVNAFT Bratislava, Slovakia; CHEMOPROJEKT Praha, Czechoslovakia; DUSLO Sala, Slovakia; NORSK HYDRO, Porsgrunn, Norway; ZVU Hradec Kralova; Czechoslovakia, Critical Fluid Systems Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA; United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., USA; SHELL Global Solution, Amsterdam and ECOPETROL Colombia; MOL Group The Duna Refinery at Százhalombatta; PETROBRAS Brazil, ALDARIS Brewery Riga, Latvia; KREMENCHUG REFINERY and SODRUGESTVO-T Kharkiv, Ukraine; Sumy Khimprom TiO2 plant, Ukraine, EVECO Brno; CHEMOPETROL Litvínov, ACHEMA JONAVA Lithuania, PPRI Bratislava and Chemical Works NOVAKY Slovakia; BUTiH Poland, MARCH Consulting Group UK, LINNHOFF MARCH UK, Firth Executive Ltd Wales, UK, PETROM Romania; Libyan Petroleum Institute, Tripoli, Libya. A very high profile application was an invited FPD Course for a prestigious von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Brussels and CSIR - Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Pretoria, South Africa.
Wen-Quan Tao and Ya-Ling He
This keynote lecture includes two parts.
In the first part the field synergy principle for enhancing convective heat transfer and its beauty in science are presented. Field synergy principle (FSP) was proposed at the end of last century by Guo and his co-workers. It says: for a fixed flow rate and temperature difference, the smaller the intersection angle between fluid velocity and its temperature gradient, the larger the heat transfer rate.In this paper the beauty of field synergy principle is discussed in detail. The six points of beauty of science : (1) concept clarity,(2) simplicity,(3) unification, (4) natruarity, (5) symmetry and (6) analogy, are analyzed individually for FSP based on numerous numerical and experimental results. It turns out that FSP possesses all six ingredients of the beauty of science..
In the second part the problem of Reynolds independence of turbulent flow pattern is discussed. For flow in the atmospheric boundary layer when Reynolds number is larger than a certain value the flow patterns are almost similar to each other. It is called Re-independence. Most atmospheric flows are in the Re-independence region. When test is conducted in a environmental wind tunnel, the flow should be in the Re-independence region. The question is how to determine this special Reynolds number, beyond which flow is Reynolds independent. Numerical methods are suggested and a criterion for determine this special Reynolds number is proposed. Numerical examples are presented to show the validity of the proposed criterion.
BIO OF THE SPEAKERWen-Quan Tao is a Professor at Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluids Science & Engineering of MOE, and Int. Joint Research Laboratory of Thermal Science & Engineering., Xi’an Jiaotong University, China. He graduated from Xi’an Jiaotong University in 1962 and received his graduate Diploma in 1966 under the supervision of Professor S.M.Yang. From 1980 to 1982 he worked with Professor E.M.Sparrow as a visiting scholar at the Heat Transfer Laboratory of University of Minnesota. He was selected as the member of Chinese Academy of Science in 2005. He has supervised more than 140 graduate students. His recent research interests include multiscale simulations of fluid flow and heat transfer problems, thermal management of fuel cell, cooling technique of data center, and enhancement of heat transfer.
Ravipudi Venkata Rao, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat-395007, India.
Solar energy is one of the abundantly available renewable energy resources. To extract this solar energy, various systems consisting of thermodynamic cycles have been widely studied by the researchers. In this work, three systems consisting of thermodynamic cycles such as Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle have been investigated to see if there can be any improvement in the selected systems. Single- as well as multi-objective optimization of these systems has been performed by considering various objectives. The proposed Rao algorithms are population-based algorithms, simple, and easy to implement for optimization applications. These algorithms are metaphor-less and have no algorithm-specific parameters. Based on the interaction of the population with best, worst, and random solutions, the proposed algorithms explore the search space and can handle the multiple objectives simultaneously. In the present work, the proposed Rao algorithms are implemented for the optimization of a solar-assisted Brayton engine system, a solar dish Stirling heat engine system, and a Stirling heat pump system to see if there can be any improvement in the performances of the considered systems. The performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated in terms of spacing, hypervolume, and coverage metrics. The computational results obtained by the proposed Rao algorithms are superior to those achieved by the other algorithms from the literature.
BIO OF THE SPEAKERDr. R. Venkata Rao is currently working as a Professor (Higher Administrative Grade) in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology (SVNIT), Surat, India. He has more than 29 years of teaching and research experience, having completed his B.Tech. in 1988, M.Tech. in 1991, Ph.D. in 2002 and D.Sc. in 2017. Presently he is holding the position of Dean (Faculty Welfare) in his institute. Dr. Rao’s research interests include: advanced optimization algorithms and their applications to design, thermal and manufacturing engineering, and fuzzy multiple attribute decision-making methods and their industrial applications. Dr. Rao has more than 350 research papers to his credit, published in national and international journals and conference proceedings, and has received national and international awards for his research efforts. The link to his research record is https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9957-1086. He is a reviewer for more than 80 national and international journals and serves on the editorial boards of several international journals. He has guided 14 Ph.D. candidates and 5 are in progress. Apart from conducting a number of short-term training programs for faculty members and professionals on advanced engineering optimization techniques, he has handled numerous research projects including the bi-lateral projects with Austria, Russia and Slovenia. He also worked as a Visiting Professor at Cracow University of Technology, Poland; Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand; and BITS Pilani Dubai, UAE. He has authored six books and all these have been published by Springer.
Dr. Kamel Hooman
Concentrated solar power (CSP) plant is a promising sustainable option for electricity generation with much lower carbon footprint compared with traditional fossil-fuel-based power plants. The primary challenge, however, is to increase the capacity factor by generating electricity during the night and under overcast conditions. This can be addressed by integrating thermal storage units into CSP plants. Hence, sensible energy storage, e.g. using molten salts with high specific heat capacities, has been widely adopted in several CSP plants. In parallel, latent heat thermal energy storage, through the use of phase change materials, is attracting attention for bringing about excellent CSP performance as the PCMs have relatively higher heat capacity thanks to the use of heat of fusion and lower temperature difference during phase transition. However, the thermal conductivity of PCMs are very low which impedes the heat transfer rate to or from the circulating heat transfer fluid, thereby extending the cycle time of thermal energy loading/unloading processes (i.e. melting and solidification). This paper investigates different techniques to address this problem. Relying on numerical, experimental and theoretical findings, optimization of a PCM compound will be discussed and results will be presented.
BIO OF THE SPEAKERDr. Kamel Hooman has over two decades of work experience in industry and academia. His research focuses on thermofluids engineering, with a particular attention to energy conversion, using numerical, theoretical and experimental techniques. He is an Associate Editor for Journal of Porous Media, Heat Transfer Engineering and International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. He serves on many editorial boards and has acted as guest editors for some journals with Applied Thermal Engineering and ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering being the latest ones. He has received awards and fellowships from the Emerald, Australian Research Council, Australian Academy of Science, National Science Foundation China, and Chinese Academy of Sciences. With over 150 journal papers and some book chapters, he has also presented as keynote/plenary in numerous conferences and meetings. While a full time academic staff at The University of Queensland, Dr Hooman has held visiting professor positions in Europe and Asia. His has co-authored a book “Convection Heat Transfer in Porous Media” which has been published in November 2019.
Heat transfer enhancements of many energy systems devices go backs to the development of heat exchangers for industrial applications, which can be traced back earlier than the 90s. Google scholar shows over 1.6 million publications on the topic of heat transfer enhancements. Almost any industry (automobile, chemical, air-condition, petrochemical, electronic industries, etc.) has some equipment that needs to dissipate heat in one way or another. Living animals and humans have a few mechanisms of adaptive heat transfer enhancements. In the open literature, many technics have been developed and utilized, such as extended surfaces, twisted strips, porous media, turbulent generators, nanofluids, passive and active heat pipes, liquid metals, boiling, etc. Also, a few textbooks solely devoted to heat transfer enhancements.
Due to the demand for powerful electronics and miniaturization processes, the power intensity increased drastically. The request for a high flux order of 100 W/cm2, even more, is needed. The next generation of high power electronic industries needs heat dissipation at the rate of the order of 400 W/cm2.
The energy transport equation for single-phase steady-state reveals two mechanisms of heat transfer, advection and conduction. For multiphase (boiling and condensation) another mechanism dominates the rate of heat transfer, which is the enthalpy of evaporation and condensation. Also, at relatively high-temperature radiation transport mechanism plays a role in the heat dispassion.
Some authors classified the technics of heat transfer enhancements as passive or active methods. However, in this paper, the classifications are based on the physics of the heat transfer enhancements rather than on the driving power. The physics of heat transfer enhancements are explained. The review of technics used for the heat transfer enhancements for low power to high power intensity is reviewed and discussed.
BIO OF THE SPEAKERProfessor Abdulmajeed (Majeed) Mohamad is a Professor in the Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. He graduated from Baghdad University with a BSc (Hons) and MSc in 1976 and 1978, respectively. He obtained a Ph.D. degree and Post Doc from the School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, USA. Dr. Mohamad’s research interests are on thermal system analysis; computational methods, Lattice Boltzmann Methods; natural and forced convection for laminar and turbulent flow; natural convection in liquid metals; heat transfer enhancement; thermal solar energy; double-diffusive problems; combustion in porous media, radiative heat transfer, etc. He simulated natural, turbulent convection for inherited safe a nuclear reactor. Also, he simulated the CO2 adsorption process in the zeolite column. Dr. Mohamad developed low NOx porous burners and a few industrial projects as a consultant. Professor Mohamad has been invited to many institutions around the world as a lecturer, keynote speaker and invited professor.
Dr. Mohamad was appointed a Guest Professor by Tianjin University, China, 2018-2020. He was visiting Professor by the Cracow University of Technology; Polytech Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Ecole Normale Superieure Paris-Saclay; Kind Saud University; Alfaisal University, Saud Arabia; Tunis University, Tunisia, Xian Jiaotong University, China. He is the founder of the International Conference on Computational Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer. The 12th meeting was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2019, and 11th is scheduled in Krakow, Poland, May 2018. He is also the founder of the International Conference on Applications of Porous Media. The 6th conference was held in Tianjin, China in July 2017. He has been invited several times to the NATO summer school in Turkey and in Romania. While on leave from the University of Calgary during the period of 2010–2012, he served as the acting Dean of Engineering at Alfaisal University (AU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and was instrumental in the establishing of the engineering school at Alfaisal University. Professor Mohamad is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and an Executive Member of the Scientiﬁc Council for the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer (ICHMT). Professor Mohamad is the author of a popular textbook on the Lattice Boltzmann Method - Fundamentals and Engineering Applications with Computer Codes, which was published by Springer, 2011 (1st edition) and 2019 (2nd edition). Professor Mohamad has published over 300 papers, mainly in peer-reviewed journals, as well as contributed to the education of many undergraduate and graduate students. He is the recipient of Iraq Present ad a gifted student. He is the recipient of the research excellence award and Graduate Student Educator award from the Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Calgary. He is the recipient of the Averroes Award (ICOME17 meeting, July 2017) for his contribution to the education of many students around the world. He graduated with over 40 Ph.D. and MSc students.
Using fossil fuels for energy has exacted an enormous toll on humanity and the environment ranging from resource scarcity and environmental deterioration to human health threats. As an alternative solution, renewable energy is increasingly playing a crucial role in reshaping the energy system to mitigate climate change, reduce environmental pollution and strengthen energy security. Since renewable energy sources (such as solar, wind, and hydro) are characterized by low-energy densities, however, utilization usually requires the construction of material-intensive infrastructure to capture and convert the low-quality energy source into high-quality electricity. Therefore, the large-scale deployment of renewable energy involves a continuous and substantial infrastructure construction and material consumption, which certainly have multi-impacts on resource depletion, environmental pollution as well as disturbance to ecological integration, both on-site and along the supply chain. Hybrid LCA model, Material Flow Analysis, Emergy and Remoting Sensing methods have been used in our research group to investigate those impacts, with regard to their spatial-temporal dynamic variations and trade-off among them. Our research works are very informative to advance the green development of renewable power industry and to avoid unintended consequences.
BIO OF THE SPEAKERDr. Lixiao Zhang is currently a professor at School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, China. Dr. Zhang obtained his Master degree and Ph.D. degree in environmental sciences from Peking University. Prior to joining BNU in 2005, he was a research fellow in BOKU university of Austria. Dr. Zhang has been involved in research on various aspects of environmental accounting and management, with special focus on food-energy-water nexus, urban metabolism，and renewable energy systems since 2007. Over this time he has conducted research on life cycle assessment(LCA), Environmental Input-Output Analysis (EIOA) and Ecological Modelling techniques. Dr. Zhang is also recognized for his productive and highest cited scholarly output in environmental accounting and management. He has authored over 100 peer-reviewed papers and 5 books. His works are widely recognized and have more than 1800 citations with H-index of 24 according to Web of Science. Dr. Zhang has served as the deputy dean of School of Environment, the General secretary of Environmental Geoscience Branch of Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences. He has also served as principal investigator for more than 20 large-scale research projects. He was appointed as associate editor of Journal of Environmental Management in November since 2017.
In the fifties of the last century, Professor Jan Szargut undertook research into the exergy analysis of thermal processes as one of the pioneers in the world of thermodynamics. As one of the milestones worked out of Professor Jan Szargut one should recognize the development of the concept of reference states in the calculation of chemical exergy of elements. The theory of reference states is the basis of this area of exergy analysis, in which the calculation of chemical exergy is required. It has to be pointed out that the algorithms for calculation chemical exergy of elements are important among others from the point of view of assessment of quality of non-renewable natural resources. Such possibility is the base for ecological application of exergy analysis. Professor Szargut's scientific works concerned various practical applications of exergy analysis in the study of thermal and industrial processes. One of the important milestone brought into exergy analysis by Professor Szargut was the development of the concept of calculating the Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CExC). This concept of system exergy analysis was the basis for the creation of modern branches of advanced exergy analysis - Thermo-Economic Analysis (TEA) and Thermo-Ecological Cost (TEC) analysis. Many practical examples can be presented that local and system exergy analysis can lead even to quite opposite results and conclusions. System exergy approach is especially important in ecological application of exergy where the boundary has to reach the level of extraction of natural resources from nature. The last application of CExC is also an original method developed by the Professor, which allows the usage of exergy to assess the ecological effects. In particular, thermo-ecology is used to analyse the influence of human activity on the depletion of non-renewable natural resources including additional demand for resources exergy necessary to compensate environmental losses due to rejection of harmful substances.
The TEC (Thermo-Ecological Cost) proposed by Szargut is an evaluation tool applied to measure the efficiency of natural resources management. It combines exergy as a resource’s quality indicator and a cumulative calculus (system exergy analysis). TEC of a product fulfilling the rules of exergy cost theory is expressed in units of exergy per unit of product, and is defined as the cumulative consumption of non-renewable natural resources burdening this product, increased by a supplementary term accounting for the necessity to abate or compensate the negative effects of harmful wastes rejection to the natural environment. The value of TEC can be calculated from the balance of cumulative non-renewable exergy consumption. The total value of TECj burdening the products of the j-th process results first of all from the direct consumption of non-renewable exergy resources supplied to the process. Also, TECj results from the consumption of intermediate exergy carriers and/or materials with known TEC index. Additionally, the product of the process j has to be burdened with the TEC resulting from rejection of harmful substances to the environment. The natural non-renewable resources can be in general divided into two group – fuel and mineral. Thus it could be interesting what is the share of fuel and mineral resources exergy in total TEC. Szargut and Stanek proposed additionally the method for the decomposition of the total TEC into fuel and mineral part. The partition of the TEC into a fuel part and mineral part is purposeful because the depletion of mineral resources is more dangerous for the future economy of humankind. Any renewable mineral resources do not exist. The destructed rich mineral resources may be replaced only by the more lean ones requiring a higher consumption of exergy in their utilization process.
Within the lecture the fundamentals of Thermo-Ecological Cost (TEC) calculation algorithm will be presented. Additionally this theoretical part will be illustrated with example application of TEC analysis:
1) TEC of electricity generated in tri-generation system including renewable and non-renewable energy technologies,
2) TEC analysis of renewable energy systems integrated with accumulation,
3) Exergy analysis of industrial system – Blast Furnace (BF) process,
4) Exergy and Thermo-Ecological (TEC) analysis of nuclear power plants,
5) Application of exergy analysis for Pro-Ecological TAXes.
BIO OF THE SPEAKERProf. dr hab. inż. Wojciech Stanek, born in 1970, education and professional career is connected with the Silesian University of Technology – one of the best research centre in Poland in the field of energy systems including technical, thermodynamic, economic and ecological optimization of thermal systems. In 1994 he obtained M.Sc. degree at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, in 1998 at the Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering of the Silesian University of Technology he defended his doctoral thesis, and in 2009 D.Sc. at the same Faculty. In 2018, Wojciech Stanek obtained the title of professor of technical sciences. Thanks to numerous internships and foreign visits, Wojciech Stanek established a wide network of international connections, including - University of Zaragoza, University of Berlin and Universities in Florence and Rome. The main scientific and research interests of Wojciech Stanek are related to exergy analysis, thermodynamic assessment of ecological effects using thermo-ecological cost and mathematical modelling. Detailed research problems undertaken by Wojciech Stanek included among others the following problems: modelling of power plants and combined heat and power plants using artificial intelligence methods, mathematical modelling and system analysis of blast furnace process, thermo-economic and thermo-ecological analysis, thermo-ecological optimization, application of exergy analysis to determine pro-ecological taxes, advanced exergy analysis with particular emphasis on applications in the field of energy system diagnosis as well as assessment of induced losses of exergy because of random operation of renewable energy systems. Certainly, these research areas cover important and contemporary issues in the area of climate change and environmental protection as well as modern energy systems. The result of the research carried out in the above mentioned areas have been presented in Wojciech Stanek's scientific publications, including 72 articles in scientific journals and 120 papers presented at scientific conferences. A significant part of papers was published in prestigious international journals, including 24 articles in the journal Energy (IF = 4.97), 1 article in the journal Fuel (IF = 4.91), 3 articles in the journal Renewable Energy (IF = 4.90) and 5 articles in the journal Energy Conversion and Management (IF = 6.38). Currently, the total Impact Factor of prof. W. Stanek is IF = 162, and Hirsch index H = 13. Professor Stanek was also the author and editor of the book published by SPRINGER "Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources". This book was prepared in cooperation with a team from the Silesian University of Technology and the team from University of Zaragoza. Professor Wojciech Stanek is also active in realisation of research projects. He participated in 20 research projects (including 6 international projects), in 8 projects he was the manager of project or package. His cooperation with the industry includes participation in 12 research and implementation works realized for the industry. These works have been done, among others, for Polish energy sector and metallurgy. As part of cooperation with foreign countries, the following elements should be listed: from 2010 Subject Editor in ENERGY (Philadelphia list), co-founder and member of the "exergo-ecological" portal (exergoecology.com), one-month scientific internships at Universities in Rome and Zaragoza, participation in the TEMPUS program (internships in Clausthal and Berlin) and the INCREASE scientific network, active participation in the OPTI_Energy Center of Excellence, from 2010 the package manager in the European project RECENT and manager of package in project MOCCA, the organization of international CPOTE conferences and the prestigious ECOS international conference. In the area of didactic activity, prof. Stanek has been the supervisor of over 150 diploma thesis and has developed 12 lectures. He was the supervisor of 3 defended Ph.D. theses and reviewed 14 doctoral dissertations, including 6 from foreign scientific institutions.
Among the main global problems are depletion of resources, accumulation of wastes, and destruction of society and environment, both biotic and abiotic parts. The current trend of biodiversity loss with its irreversible extinction of living species is especially problematic. It is then clear that the current concept of sustainable development should be upgraded to address these problems properly in order to develop measures to cure the entire system. While the potential of Circular Economy is to reduce both the excessive dependence on resources and the uncontrolled deposition of wastes, Regenerative Economy tends to cure and restore the entire system through rebirth and renewal of systems’ parts in connection with nature. One of the ultimate goals from the systems viewpoint would be to develop and implement a holistic approach to the synthesis and optimization of sustainable and regenerative systems. In the production sector the aim is not only increasing its efficiency of resources utilization, while simultaneously mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as significantly lower waste disposal, but also restoring the environment by reversing of waste flows from the environment back in the production loops. Thermodynamic analysis of European Union energy sectors will be presented to show energy saving potential as well as potential for related GHG emissions reduction. The role of mathematical programming (MP) approach to systems synthesis and optimization will be discussed in order to design more advanced systems with respect to achieving significant utility and, hence, emission reduction and even restoration of the environment. The results from thermodynamic analysis and example problems clearly indicate great potential for GHG emission reduction and that the necessary transition away from fossil-based production could be carried out in a sustainable and regenerative way within relatively short period of time.
BIO OF THE SPEAKERZdravko Kravanja is a Professor and the Dean in the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at the University of Maribor, Slovenia
He joined the university after several years in industry (1981-1985). He was Visiting Researcher (1988-89) and Visiting Professor at Carnegie Mellon University, US (1997), and Guest Professor at Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Lyngby on several occasions (from 1998 on). He was awarded with Pannonia Award in 2015 and Slovenian state price - Zois award for excellence in science in 2017. He was President of the Slovenian Academic Association for Engineering and Natural Sciences (SATENA) (2010-2011). He has recently become an associate member of Slovenian Academy of Engineering. His research over the years has been devoted mainly to the development of algorithmic techniques, strategies, and computerised tools for sustainable Process Systems Engineering, including Heat and Water Integration. Together with Professor Grossmann, he has developed a unique mixed-integer process synthesizer shell called MIPSYN. Recently, his research has been oriented towards the synthesis of sustainable systems, e.g. renewable based biofuel supply networks, using multi-objective optimization and monetary based sustainability measurements, sustainability profit and sustainability net present value. He has (co)-authored around 170 publications in scientific journals.
Ryszard Białecki, Wojciech Adamczyk, Adam Klimanek
Combustion of solid fossil fuels, with an increasing share of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is still a dominating technology of power generation. Due to its potential of reducing the carbon footprint gasification of solid fuels becomes an important alternative technology that reduces the CO2 emission. In both cases, the main difficulty is to assure intensive mass and heat exchange between solid and gaseous phases. Fluidization, specifically the circulating bed technology is an efficient mean of organizing this process.
The inherent difficulties of CFD modeling of the fluidization process are associated with the tracing the trajectories and fate of the burning/gasified particles. While in pulverized coal combustion, the interaction between particles can be neglected, fluidized beds require the direct collisions of the particles to be included in the model. Two techniques of dealing with these questions are available – the Euler-Euler approach and hybrid Euler Lagrange methods. In the former, the particulates of a given diameter range are treated as if they were another fluid phase. The technique soon leads to very intensive numerical calculations. Moreover, due to its inherent nonphysical assumptions of continuity of the solid phase, the submodels of mass, momentum and heat exchange between the particles and gas and the chemical reactions are prone to significant errors. The second family of models, the hybrid ones, are based on a Lagrangian tracking of the particles, with the interaction between them described by an analog of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases, extended to granular flow. Here the submodels are attached to a particle, and as such can be investigated and modeled using simple physical models.
The paper will concentrate on a variant of the hybrid Euler Lagrange technique known as a Dense Discrete Phase Model applied to both combustion and gasification. The results of simulations were confronted with measurements carried out at large steam boilers. A good agreement between these two results was found.
The CFD model has been used for tuning a simple and rapid 1D fluidized bed model developed at the Lappeenranta University of Technology.
The initial stage of our research on coupling a more sophisticated model of particle collisions based on the Discrete Element Method with CFD will be reported.
Acknowledgement The work has been financed by the Polish Science Center within the OPUS16 scheme grant 2018/31/B/ST8/02201 Novel approach to modeling of granular flows (Nowatorskie podejście do modelowania złożonych przepływów granularnych).
BIO OF THE SPEAKERRyszard Białecki received the MSc degree in chemical engineering from the Faculty of Chemistry of SUT, Ph.D., and D.Sc. (Polish - habilitation) in mechanical engineering from the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of SUT.
Ryszard Białecki holds the position of a full professor of energy at the Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering of the Silesian University of Technology (SUT), Gliwice, Poland. He served for 6 years (2006-2012) as a chair of the Institute of Thermal Technology, an 80 person research and teaching unit of the SUT, and four years (2012-2016) as vice-rector for international cooperation of the SUT (20 thousand students, 3.5 thousand employees).
The thrust of his research is in simulations and experimental investigation of thermofluid phenomena. Specifically, he has been involved in energy and heat transfer, combustion, inverse analysis (retrieving material properties), medical bioengineering and influence of the energy generation sector on the climate. He is an expert in the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques in simulations and optimization of industrial and medical processes, developed own codes to simulate heat radiation. He has also developed innovative methods to retrieve material properties.
He supervised 10 PhD theses. Five of his former Ph.D. students hold now a Professor degree.
Prof. Białecki authored one book in the UK, two chapters in J. Wiley and Springer encyclopedias, six chapters in books printed in England and Germany and a co-author of three Polish books. He is a co-author of five granted and 5 pending patents. He published almost 100 journal papers that received over 1200 citations resulting in Hirsch factor of 20 (Scopus). He also presented over 200 conference papers.
Prof. Białecki gave seminars in over 40 Universities and research institutions worldwide including IBM Watson Research Centre (US), National Energy Technology Laboratory of the Department of Energy (US), VTT Research Centre (FIN), Universities in Germany, Italy, Netherland, UK, France, Belgium, Portugal, Spain, Finland, Czech, Slovenia, Japan, China, Slovakia, Brazil, and Suriname. He gave full-time courses for master students both in US and Germany.
Prof. Białecki spent one year as a US Department of State Fulbright Commission fellow at the University of Central Florida and a total of 3.5 years as a research and visiting fellow at the Erlangen Nuremberg University in Germany. During his stay in the US, he was involved in a NASA research project on innovative compressor design. In Germany, he developed a numerical code for simulations of temperature field in a car engine within a project financed by Daimler Benz. The code has been used in the corporation for about ten years.
Prof Białecki coordinated two international projects within European Union Framework Programmes and served as local coordinator of two others. He coordinated also numerous research projects financed by Polish national agencies. The total research funding he acquired is of the order of 2 500 k€. He has strong links with the industry, specifically energy and steelmaking sectors for which he led several projects. The development of a device for nondestructive measurement of thermal diffusivity, that was installed in SGL Carbon plant at Raciborz (Poland) he has been awarded an InnoSilesia prize for the most innovative industrial installation in Silesia Region.
He served as a panel member of the European Research Council (starting, consolidator, synergy calls) and several panels of the Polish Research Center. In 2019 he has been elected a Corresponding Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Petar Sabev Varbanov, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš
The World energy demand keeps growing despite the established energy-saving measures (Ritchie & Roser, 2014). The main reasons are related to the 2/3 loss rate of energy resources on their way to users (Forman et al., 2016).
This contribution provides an analysis of the combined targets for energy, capital cost and footprints of Total Sites. The fundamental unit of energy saving is Process-Level Heat Integration (Klemeš et al., 2018b) – an established methodology for heat recovery using Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs) and appropriate combination of the HENs with processes of high energy intensity – as distillation, evaporation and reactors, as well as utilities – heat pumps and heat engines.
The Total Site model (Klemeš et al., 1997) considers the uitility system of an industrial site or an industrial zone as the marketplace, which allows exchanging heat betweem different processes giving rise to a site-level Heat Integration with an opportunity for power cogeneration. The more recent developments have also considered the integration of renewables (Varbanov and Klemeš, 2011). Energy supply is the only external degree of freedom, available to power the economic and industrial activities including to power anyt Circular Economy implementations. The impacts on the global biogeochemical cycles (Jacobson et al., 2000), expressed more specifically as the Global Material Cycles (Smil, 2007), are monitored mainly by the Greenhouse Gas (GHG, Carbon emission) footprint, Water Footprint, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Footprints (Klemeš, 2015).
It is shown how Process Integration – targeting and rational system design, well fits within the overall hierarchy of reduction-reusing-recycling materials for minimising the fresh resource consumption and emissions. These methods (Klemeš et al., 2018a) treat industrial problems at several levels: industrial sites including Process-Level Heat Integration, Total Site Integration, municipal and regional optimisation – Locally Integrated Energy Sectors (Perry et al., 2008) and regional supply networks (Lam et al., 2011), resource management in time – such as Power Pinch (Wan Alwi et al., 2012). Examples are given of the application of Process Integration targeting tools for successful reduction of GHG emissions and lessons are drawn from them.
This research has been supported by the EU project “Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL”, project No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000456 funded by EU “CZ Operational Programme Research, Development and Education”, Priority 1: Strengthening capacity for quality research.
Forman, C., Muritala, I.K., Pardemann, R., Meyer, B. (2016). Estimating the global waste heat potential. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 57, 1568–1579.
Jacobson, M. C. (2000). Earth System Science: From Biogeochemical Cycles to Global Change. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, United States, ISBN: 978-0-12-379370-6.
Klemeš, J.J. (2015). Assessing and measuring environmental impact and sustainability. Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier ,Oxford ; Waltham, MA, United States, ISBN: 978-0-12-799968-5.
Klemeš, J.J., Dhole, V.R., Raissi, K., Perry, S.J., Puigjaner, L. (1997). Targeting and design methodology for reduction of fuel, power and CO2 on Total Sites. Applied Thermal Engineering 17, 993–1003.
Klemeš, J.J., Varbanov, P.S., Walmsley, T.G., Jia, X. (2018a). New directions in the implementation of Pinch Methodology (PM). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 98, 439–468.
Klemeš, J.J., Varbanov, P.S., Wan Alwi, S.R., Manan, Z.A. (2018b). Sustainable Process Integration and Intensification. Saving Energy, Water and Resources, 2nd ed. Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
Lam, H.L., Varbanov, P.S., Klemeš, J.J. (2011). Regional renewable energy and resource planning. Applied Energy 88, 545–550.
Ritchie, H., Roser, M. (2014). Energy Production & Changing Energy Sources. Our World in Data. <https://ourworldindata.org/energy-production-and-changing-energy-sources>, Accessed 08/10/2019.
Perry, S., Klemeš, J., Bulatov, I. (2008). Integrating waste and renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint of locally integrated energy sectors. Energy, PRES ’07 10th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction 33, 1489–1497.
Smil, V. (2007). Global material cycles - The Encyclopedia of Earth. 28 May 2007. <https://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Global_material_cycles>, Accessed 07/11/2019.
Varbanov, P.S., Klemeš, J.J. (2011). Integration and management of renewables into Total Sites with variable supply and demand. Computers and Chemical Engineering 35, 1815–1826.
Wan Alwi, S.R., Mohammad Rozali, N.E., Abdul-Manan, Z., Klemeš, J.J. (2012). A process integration targeting method for hybrid power systems. Energy, Integration and Energy System Engineering, European Symposium on Computer-Aided Process Engineering 2011 44, 6–10.
BIO OF THE SPEAKERAssoc. Prof Dr Petar Sabev Varbanov
Dr Varbanov is the Deputy Head of SPIL – Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory, NETME Centre, FME, Brno University of Technology – VUT Brno, Czech Republic. His main fields of activity are energy saving and efficiency, development and implementation of Process Integration, Total Site and regional integration for energy and water – including industry interaction interfaces, retrofit, waste to energy, wastewater minimisation leading to GHG and water footprints reduction.
Petar Varbanov has got PhD in Process Integration from UMIST (now – The University of Manchester, UK) with distinction in 2004, on “Optimisation and Synthesis of Process Utility Systems”, completed in collaboration with Aspentech, Shell Global Solutions, MW Kellog and BP. He has been twice the Fellow of Marie Curie research grants – an Individual Intra-European Fellowship Grant for 2 y research at Technische Universität Berlin, followed by a grant for going to the University of Pannonia, Hungary, where he served as the Deputy Head of the Centre for Process Integration and Intensification CPI2 until February 2016, when he won the post at SPIL in Brno, Czech Republic. He has been also an Associate Professor at the Centre for Process Systems Engineering & Sustainability – Pázmány Péter Catholic University.
Dr Varbanov is the European Editor of the Springer Journal “Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy” and Subject Editor of the Elsevier journal “Energy – The International Journal” and he served as the Managing Guest Editor and Guest Editor of Journal of Cleaner Production, Energy, Applied Thermal Engineering, Computers and Chemical Engineering.
He has been a long term Scientific Secretary of and recently a Co-Chair of the Conference on Process Integration for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction –PRES (www.conferencepres.com), member of the International Scientific Committee and chair of the Poster Evaluation Committee of the International Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems SDEWES international conference (www.sdewes.org), as well as member of the Scientific Committee of the Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory Scientific–SPIL conferences. He is also the Scientific Secretary of the International Conference "Sustainable and efficient use of energy, water and natural resources" – SEWAN. He served many years as the Scientific Secretary of the CAPE-WP of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering.
Recently he has been contributing to 25 EC co-funded and other research and demonstration projects. He has published over 186 papers indexed by Web of Science with H-Index of 30. He is a co-author of two books and several chapters in books. He has been external examiner at University of Surrey, The University of Manchester, University Mohammed I – Oujda.
His research has been successfully implemented in collaboration with industrial partners: BP-Coryton, BP-Grangemouth, MOL Százhalombatta,HU, Bayer, DE, IPLOM – Busalla, IT. He has been actively collaborating with HUNTSMAN Processing & Engineering – Basel (CH), Process Integration Ltd (UK), Cal Gavin (UK), Akstionernoe Obshchestvo 'Sodrugestvo-T' (UA), Makatec Apparate GmbH (DE), The University of Manchester (UK), University of Bath (UK), Paderborn University (DE), EMBaffle (NL), University of Maribor (SI), Pannon Novum Regional Innovation Centre (HU), Chamber of Commerce Nagykanizsa (HU), Julius Montz GMBH (DE), Process Design Centre BV (NL), Scottish Power Generation Ltd (UK), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (GR), Imperial College London (UK), ETH Zürich (CH); National Technical University of Athens (GR), University of Zagreb (HR), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (GR), Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute (UA), The Hashemite University (JO), University Mohammed I (MA), Bayer (DE), MOL (HU), ENN Group Ltd (CN), IPLOM Refinery (IT)
Ryszard Białecki, Jerzy Gagan, Kamil Śmierciew, Tadeusz Zieliński
Heat recovery is a common approach for effective energy management. With utilization of the waste heat the investment and operation costs can be reduced. In the paper the possibility of utilisation of the waste heat from flue gases in the maritime industry will be presented and discussed. Combustion engine is a main source for electric energy consumed be all electrical devices in ships and yachts. Currently, the conventional compressor systems driven by electricity generated in the generators are used for production of cold water used in air-conditioning units. Conversion of fuel energy into mechanical and electrical energy is related with creation of a significant amount of heat which is irretrievably removed. The proposed solution is an excellent example of an industrial application with a strong potential for implementation. At the same time, it combines all positive aspects of environmentally-friendly cold production using clean technology and meets all standards in the use of ecological working fluid.
The exhaust system comprises: the innovative ehaust gases cleaning system with use of innovative compact ejector scrubber, heat recovery unit based on steam-water cycle, and innovative heat driven refrigeration system that utilise waste heat for production of cold for the air-conditioning units. The paper summarize the results obtained for the implemented parts of the ehhaust system in terms of the cleaning efficiency of ehaust gases as well as operation of the refrigeration system. Modelling of two-phase ejector as a scrubbing device as well as supersonic ejection refrigeration system, driben by waste heat are presented.